This nutrition research information below is available from The University of Maryland website, Harvard and many other online Universities.
Note: Some of these Vitamins & Minerals below recommended by the university research paper are Synthetics. At lookingvibrant.com, We don't use chemicals, expedients or synthetic ingredients in our products.
- B1 – Thiamine
- B2 – Riboflavin
- B3 – Niacin
- Vitamin D
- Vitamin K
- Pantothenic Acid
- Vitamin C
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin A
- Beta Carotene
- Glutathione (GSH)
- Superoxide Dismutase
- Lipoic Acid
Amino and Fatty Acids
- Fish Oil
- Malic Acid
- Trimethylglycine (Betaine)
These are especially critical for energy production, and the RDAs I feel are very suboptimal (and one reason why many people call RDAs “Ridiculous Dietary Allowances”). B Vitamins are also important for immunity, nerve, and brain function, and much more. Using high but safe doses can be very important (while easy and low cost).
B1 (75 MG) – THIAMINE
Vitamin B1 is critical for proper brain functioning, making it especially important in those with “brain fog.” It is also critical for heart function, which needs help in CFS patients (the heart is healthy, but the heart muscle needs help with energy production). In fact, a major cause of death in the U.S. is congestive heart failure, which is one symptom of vitamin B1 deficiency. Despite 33% of CHF patients being low in thiamine, 43 this easy treatment aid is ignored. Thiamine is also used therapeutically in dementia, anxiety, neuropathy, fatigue, alcoholism, confusion, depression, pain, memory loss, and disequilibrium.
In a double-blind study by Dr. David Benton, an expert on thiamine, supplementation with vitamin B1 improved mood—possibly by increasing synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is associated with memory.44 Deficiency of this neurotransmitter has also been suspected to occur in CFS and supplementation with choline (see below) can also be helpful. Dr. Benton also found that giving 50 mg/day of thiamine (vs. placebo) was associated with reports of being more clearheaded, composed and energetic. These influences took place in subjects whose thiamine status, according to traditional criteria, was adequate.45 Dr. Benton notes that:
“Traditionally, the RDA has aimed to avoid a deficiency disease and has added a safety margin. My findings suggest that if you wish to redefine the RDA as achieving optimal functioning then the levels recommended would have to be increased.” He notes that subclinical thiamine deficiency can even affect school performance in young children stating that “there are clinical reports of youths who have developed aggressive behavioral problems to the extent that they entered a mental hospital. The origin of the problem was a diet that consists of little more than fast-food snacks on the street. Having failed to respond to psychiatric drugs, their unacceptable behavior disappeared when treated with thiamine supplements. In general, as poorer mood is known to influence cognitive functioning in all children, a poor mood is likely to be associated with poorer school performance.”
Dr. Derrick Lonsdale, another nutrition expert, has even found that thiamine supplementation can markedly diminish Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). He found that by giving nutritional support:
“Gradually, it became obvious that I was merely supplying the missing components of energy metabolism and that these children were simply repairing their own tissues with the extra energy that was available to their cells. What was even more important was the fact that the enormous number of children with so-called emotional problems (attention deficit, hyperactivity and learning disability) plaguing the school system responded to their withdrawal from their cultural "goodies" and the use of vitamin therapy. This was published in the Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1980. My present concept of the extreme danger of "high-calorie malnutrition" was born. It has long been known that an increase in sugar in the diet automatically increases the need for thiamin. This is because glucose, which is the derivative of all sugars, is processed into the citric acid cycle and thiamin is the rate-limiting step. The ingestion of sugar in all forms in America is reported to be 150 pounds per capita of population per annum.”
Dr. Lonsdale feels that inadequate thiamine can occur even if one is taking much more than the RDA. Interestingly, symptoms of thiamine deficiency can mimic symptoms often seen in CFS/FMS. He notes “Symptoms can be compared with "alarm bells" ringing. What thiamin deficiency does is to make the limbic system (the computer) much more sensitive to any form of stimulus. Thus, a person may have increased auditory, tactile or visual perceptions which are acute enough to be unpleasant. This gives rise to consciously perceived phenomena such as tachycardia, unusual sweating, abdominal pain with or without diarrhea, or a sense of panic/anxiety, fear, etc. These symptoms are easily perceived as fragments of the fight-or-flight reflex. Because of collective ignorance about the effects of dietary indiscretion, such symptoms are perceived as "nerves," "neurosis" or "functional" and are traditionally treated with a "tranquilizer." This is why I have termed the reaction Functional Dysautonomia. It is widespread and is frequently associated with mitral valve prolapse, premenstrual syndrome, temporomandibular syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome. There is really no such thing as a dose that suits all. Our biochemical mechanisms are variable from person to person and even within the same individual at different times. All we can do is to provide an excess because the cell will use what it needs. The excess is lost in urine, sweat, etc. There are absolutely no side effects from thiamin unless it is given in thousands of time its physiologic dose. It has been used in Alzheimer patients in doses of 3 gms a day, with some benefit.46
Professor Michael Gold also found that people with Alzheimer’s have lower serum thiamine levels than those with other types of dementia 47. He also noted that in a small study of Chinese patients with Hepatitis, high dose B1 appeared to have anti-viral effects-which could also be potentially beneficial in CFS/FMS patients.
B2 – RIBOFLAVIN (75 MG)
This B vitamin is especially critical for energy production. In higher doses (75-400 mg/day) it has been repeatedly shown to decrease migraine frequency (a common problem in CFS/FMS) by 67% after 6-12 weeks. Vitamin B2 even helps decrease the risk of postpartum depression.
B3 – NIACIN (50 MG)
Niacin is also critical for energy production, being a key part of the energy molecule NADH (which also helps make the neurotransmitter dopamine). Niacin may also prevent Alzheimer's. A five-year study of over 3,700 people published in the Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry showed an inverse relationship between niacin intake and both Alzheimer's disease and age-related mental decline. The group getting a median 14 mg of niacin daily from diet and supplements were at highest risk (current RDA for niacin is 16 mg per day for men and 14 mg per day for women). While some benefits were noted to begin at 17 mg per day, a daily niacin intake of 45 mg offered the most protection from Alzheimer's disease and other causes of cognitive decline.49 High doses over decades also seem to decrease the progression of arthritis. I recommend the niacinamide form, as regular niacin can cause marked flushing.
PANTOTHENIC ACID (50 MG)
Pantothenic Acid and its cousin pantethine play many key roles in the body. Most importantly in CFS and fibromyalgia, pantothenic acid is critical for proper adrenal gland function. In addition, pantethine is also critical for proper handling of fats. For example, patients who have fatty liver and high triglycerides (blood fats) can have this condition resolve by taking pantethine.
B6 (PYRIDOXINE 85 MG)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) serves many critical functions, including enhancing immune function51 and decreasing the risk of heart disease.52 In a study of 61,433 women with no history of cancer followed for an average of 14.8 years, long-term intake of dietary vitamin B6 was also associated with a 34% decreased risk of colon cancer in those whose B6 levels were in the highest vs. the lowest 20%.53 I have also found that those with fluid retention benefit from vitamin B6 at a dose of ~ 200-250 mg/day—especially if you also optimize thyroid hormone levels. This has implications way beyond your rings being too tight. For example, B6 250 mg/day is very helpful at alleviating carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Although I have seen no studies on thyroid therapy in CTS, all of my patients who have taken B6, thyroid hormone, and a night-time “cock-up” wrist splint and do not have continuing repetitive stress injury have had their CTS go away without surgery in less than 3 months.
B12 (500-1,000 MCG/DAY)
Vitamin B12 is another key nutrient in CFIDS. Technically, the B12 level is normal if it is over 208 picograms per deciliter (pg/dL) of blood. However, studies have shown that people can suffer severe and sometimes long-term nerve and brain damage from B12 deficiency even if their levels are as high as 300 pg/dL.54 Why are the “normal” levels set so low? In part, the normal values were initially set according to what prevents anemia. But the brain’s and nervous system’s needs for vitamin B12 are often much higher than those of the bone marrow. Also, as much as I hate to admit it, the medical establishment has greatly enjoyed poking fun at the old-time doctors who gave vitamin B12 shots for fatigue. The use of B12 shots despite “normal” levels is considered almost a symbol of unscientific, archaic medicine. As noted in an editorial in The New England Journal of Medicine, however, current findings suggest that those old-time doctors may have been right. I suspect, though, that the modern medical establishment will be a little slow to eat crow.
I have been told (although I have been unable to confirm it), that a B12 level under 400 pg/dL is often considered abnormal in Japan and treated. In addition, a recent study using the respected Framingham database showed that metabolic signs of B12 deficiency occur even with levels over 500 pg/dL.56
Furthermore, people with Alzheimer’s disease have been found to have an average B12 level of only 472 picograms per deciliter, compared with people who have confusion from a non-Alzheimer’s condition (such as a stroke), whose average B12 levels run 887 picograms per deciliter. These and other studies suggest that many people need significantly higher B12 levels than what is currently considered normal. More importantly, recent research shows that despite their having normal B12 levels in the blood, CFIDS patients often have very low (and sometimes absent) B12 levels in their brains!58 This suggests that, because of the metabolic problems present in CFIDS/FMS, you may need quite high B12 levels in your blood to get adequate levels past the blood-brain barrier (the membrane that separates the brain from the blood to protect the brain from circulating toxins) and into the brain, where B12 is needed. In addition, vitamin B12 helps reduce excessive levels of nitric oxide, a neurotransmitter that can be too high in people with CFIDS/FMS and that can easily contribute to symptoms. More and more, research studies are supporting what doctors who effectively treat CFIDS/FMS using B12 shots have said for years!
It is no surprise then when their other problems are also treated, many people respond dramatically to B12 injections. If a patient’s B12 level is under 540 pg /mL, I treat that person with a 1-cc (1,000- to 3,000-microgram) injection one to five times a week for fifteen injections. These shots are very safe and fairly inexpensive. Although most regular pharmacies carry only the 1,000-microgram-per-cc strength, holistic pharmacies can make up injectable vitamin B12 that contains 3,000 micrograms per cc. I recommend that they use the methylcobalamin form or if cost is an issue, hydroxycobalmin when making high dose injections. Usually, if a patient is going to benefit from the shots, I see improvement by ten weeks. I usually stop after ten to fifteen shots. If a patient feels worse when the injections are stopped, I resume giving the shots, usually every one to five weeks (but as often as three to four times a week in some cases) for an extended period of time. Most people, however, can maintain their B12 level after fifteen injections by taking the high amount in the Energy Revitalization System. But Now we have an Oral miracle supplement called Liposomal that can deliver B12 and other nutrients to the bloodstream with on minutes even higher than injection in many cases…
Why is a low B12 level such a common problem in CFIDS patients? Several possibilities exist. Among them are the following:
- Vitamin B12 is important for the repair of nerve injuries. Evidence suggests that brain dysfunction occurs in CFIDS. In repairing this injury, the body may over-utilize vitamin B12 and deplete its stores.
- If an autoimmune process impairs the thyroid or adrenal gland, it may also attack the area responsible for our ability to absorb vitamin B12.
- Overgrowth of yeast or parasites in the bowel causing problems with absorption may prevent the proper absorption of vitamin B12.
- Nitric oxide excess is suspected in CFS and B12 is a nitric oxide scavenger.
- Vitamin B12 has trouble getting across the blood-brain barrier.
- Vitamin B12 may be important for and used up in detoxification.
The role of elevated nitric oxide in CFS has been explored by Professor Martin Pall of the University of Washington. He feels this is a major contributor to CFS and that high dose B12 is a key nitric oxide scavenger, and that this is a key reason it helps. Though complex, his ideas are well thought out, and I have added more detailed information on his theories in the website notes. I would note that the approach discussed in this book is also effective in treating this problem.
Whatever the cause, I have found that treating patients with vitamin B12, even if their levels are technically normal, often results in marked improvement. This is good, as Vitamin B12 is both very safe and cheap and using high doses can be critical in CFS/FMS.
B12 is often better absorbed when taken as a supplement than when found in food.60 This is especially important in the elderly, where suboptimal B12 levels are common. Giving RDA levels in this setting is not adequate. A 2005 study noted "The lowest dose of oral cyanocobalamin [B12] required to normalize mild vitamin B12 deficiency is more than 200 times greater than the recommended dietary allowance, which is approximately 3 µg daily," the authors write. "Clinical trials are currently assessing the effects of high doses of oral cobalamin on markers of cognitive function and depression. If such trials can demonstrate that the reported associations of vitamin B12 deficiency with cognitive impairment or depression are causal and reversible by treatment, the relevance of correction of vitamin B12 deficiency in older people could be substantial."61 Instead of waiting 10 years for those studies, I recommend people get 500 mcg/day of B12 now.
In addition, low B12 levels (which can cause high homocysteine levels) can increase the risk of osteoporosis by 200-300%.62.63 and also significantly increase the risk of stroke. 64 Low B12 is also associated with increased blood clotting—a problem that is common in CFS.65 High intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are also associated with decreased breast cancer risk, particularly among postmenopausal women.
YOUR DAILY FOUNDATION Contains 400mcg Folate
(FOLIC ACID 800 MCG/DAY)
This is the most that can legally be added to a vitamin, as there is a concern that folate could mask vitamin B12 deficiency—which is not a problem if the supplement also has high levels of B12. Optimal levels of folic acid (folate) are critical in CFS/FMS because of its role in immune function. In addition, it is critical in “methylation reactions” such as those that make SAMe.
The benefits of folate begin early in life. Folic acid is known to protect against serious neural tube birth defects that develop in the earliest weeks of pregnancy, such as spina bifida, in which parts of the brain or spinal cord don't develop properly. For this reason, doctors recommend that women who are pregnant or trying to get pregnant take a vitamin supplement that includes folic acid. About 4,000 U.S. pregnancies per year involve a neural tube defect. Because the neural tube closes about four weeks after conception, before many women know they are pregnant, folic acid needs to be taken before a woman conceives to be beneficial. In fact, to their credit, Johnson & Johnson wants to develop an oral contraceptive that contains folic acid. The goal is to reduce the risks of birth defects in babies of women who become pregnant while taking birth control pills, as well as others who conceive shortly after stopping pill use.
Mothers-to-be with lower levels of the vitamin folate in their body during early pregnancy are also more likely to have low weight babies, research published in the British Journal of Nutrition suggests. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of serious health problems, including respiratory disorders and diabetes. Since Canada started adding folic acid to foods, the number of children who developed neuroblastoma dropped 60%. Neuroblastoma is the most common cancer in infants and the most common cause of cancer-related death in children between the ages of one and four.
Another major benefit of folate is in lowering elevated homocysteine levels and 800 mcg is an effective dose for this.68 This may be one reason why an increased intake of folate has been associated with a 43% drop in heart attack rates.69 A review of many studies suggests that taking 800 mcg of folic acid per day was associated with a 15% lower risk of heart attack and a 24% reduction in stroke.
Researchers have also identified a significant new risk factor for fractures in people with osteoporosis—high homocysteine levels. Two major studies, one conducted in Boston and the other in Amsterdam, found that the homocysteine levels' link to fractures was stronger than other factors such as smoking or low bone mineral density. The lead authors of both studies suggest that increased homocysteine levels may weaken the collagen that forms the framework for bones. Both studies conclude that supplemental folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 are clearly essential in preventing potentially life-threatening hip fractures. The studies were reported in the May 13, 2004 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Interestingly, since food makers began adding extra folate to flour in 1998 to prevent birth defects, heart disease, stroke, blood pressure, colon cancer, and osteoporosis have all fallen, suggesting the general public may have been folate-deficient. Researchers are now advocating that the current fortification level, 140 micrograms of folic acid per 100 grams of grain, should be doubled.
Supplementing with 800 mcg of folate a day can also help memory. In one study, 818 cognitively healthy people ages 50 to 75 took either folic acid or placebo for three years. On memory tests, the supplement users had scores comparable to people 5.5 years younger, and on tests of cognitive speed, the folic acid helped users perform as well as people 1.9 years younger. “That's significant brain protection, with a supplement that's already well-known to be safe,” said Johns Hopkins University neuroscientist Marilyn Albert, who chairs the Alzheimer's Association's science advisory council.
In addition, low folate is associated with Alzheimer's. The results of a long-term study published in the inaugural issue of Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, indicate that consuming adequate levels of the B vitamin folate is associated with the greatest protection against Alzheimer's disease of any nutrient examined. Assistant professor of neurology Maria Corrada of the University of California Irvine's Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia and colleagues utilized data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging which was begun in 1958 and includes over 1,400 participants. Dr. Corrada noted, "The participants who had intakes at or above the 400 micrograms recommended dietary allowance of folate had a 55% reduction in the risk of developing Alzheimer's. But most people who reached that level did so by taking folic acid supplements, which suggests that many people do not get the recommended amounts of folate in their diets."
Folate may also decrease the risk of ovarian cancer. Researchers from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm analyzed data from a population-based group of more than 60,000 cancer-free women. Overall, women with the highest level of folate in their diet (at least 204 micrograms/day) were 33% less likely to develop ovarian cancer than those with the lowest levels (less than 155 micrograms/day). The results are published in a 2004 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Folate may also help protect against colon cancer as well.
Folate also decreases the risk of hypertension. The January 19, 2005 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published the findings of Harvard researchers led by John P. Forman that intake of folate supplements is inversely related to the risk of hypertension in women.
YOUR DAILY FOUNDATION Contain 200% RDA BIOTIN from Certified Organic Whole-Food Mineral Blend.
BIOTIN (200 MCG)
This is a cofactor for a number of enzyme reactions but seems especially important for healthy hair, skin, and nails. Although it may take a year for hair loss to recover on this protocol, I am amazed at how many people are thrilled that their nails and hair have become strong and healthy along with the rest of their body!
According to Dr. Jacob Teitelbaum and Dr. Gottlieb’s book, Real Cause, Real Cure: “70% of whites, 90 % of Latinos, and 97% of blacks in the United States have low blood levels of vitamin D, reported researchers at Harvard and the University of Colorado in the Archives of Internal Medicine. That’s three out of four Americans with a vitamin D deficiency, which is so easy to prevent— causes tens of thousands of unnecessary deaths every year in the United States from heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and dementia. Dr. Jacob & Gottlieb continue: “New research shows that these health problems are caused or complicated by vitamin D deficiency. (And you can add arthritis, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, depression, insomnia, fibromyalgia, and multiple sclerosis to that list of D-deficiency conditions.) D targets more than 2,000 genes (according to Dr. Bruce N Ames)— including genes that maintain the health of the heart, brain, immune system, muscles, and bones.
BIOACTIVE AND COMPLETE K2 (MK7) IS ALREADY ADDED TO Bone&OsteoX1000 Formula.
VITAMIN K (50-500 MCG/DAY)
Although vitamin K plays a role in bone health, deficiency does not seem to affect bone density in peri-menopausal women.
Vitamin K is also needed (along with magnesium and vitamin D) to build strong bones. Vitamin K (as K2) has been shown to decrease the risk of heart disease, and in men helps enhance insulin sensitivity. For the "science-minded" reader, the information below adds some background.
Dr. Kate Rheaume-Blue says,
“The combination of Organic Vitamin D, Calcium Malate, Magnesium Malate, and Vitamin K2 is exactly what the body needs in order to transport the calcium into the bone and out of the arteries where it is required.natural plant extract from the USA only.
VITAMIN K AND HEART DISEASE (MK7)
Professors Sees Vermeer and Leon Schurgers, of VitaK, at Maastricht University, the Netherlands, a leading research institute specializing in the role of vitamin K in the field of bone and cardiovascular health, provided the statement "There are two vitamins known to be involved in calcium metabolism: vitamin D and vitamin K. Increased calcium intake, especially if combined with vitamin D, results in increased absorption of calcium."A 2004 study published in the Journal of Nutrition, called the "Rotterdam Study," followed over 4,800 people for a ten year period. The study found increased intake of specifically vitamin K2 from dietary sources significantly reduced the risk of CHD mortality by 50% as compared to low dietary vitamin K2 intake.